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Pure Biology for Sec 3 & 4 By Sophia Education
Sophia Education’s Biology Notes help you to save 60% of your study time. Get the most effective and comprehensive revision material covering all syllabus topics, as well as answers to every question on the practice model papers
Sophia Education’s most qualified teachers and tutors have compiled the most important and necessary notes and materials for our students. Below are our Pure Biology notes to help you improve quickly and efficiently.
The pure biology notes are arranged in the following format: To understand pure biology, one must first have an understanding of life itself. Life can never arise spontaneously from non-living matter. Therefore, pure biology deals with life and living organisms, not abiogenesis or non-living chemicals forming together to form a living organism.
PURE BIOLOGY NOTES SUMMARY
Learn Biology the easy way with Sophia Education
Pure Biology / biology pure for Sec 3/4 by Sophia Education
Biology notes from Sophia Education help you save up to 60% of your study time. Get the most effective and comprehensive review material covering all syllabus topics, as well as answer each question in practice model papers.
Sophia Education’s most qualified teachers and tutors have compiled the most important and necessary notes and materials for our students. Below are our pure biology notes to help you improve quickly and efficiently
Pure biology notes are arranged in the following format: To understand pure biology, one must first have an idea about life. Life can never arise spontaneously from inanimate objects. Therefore, pure biology relates to life and living organisms, not biogenesis or inorganic chemicals together to form a living organism.
Bioremediation is the process of reduction, elimination, alteration, and transformation of contaminants present in the natural environment like soil, sediments, air, and water through the application of microorganisms, fungi, green plants, or their enzymes.
It is a waste management technique that uses naturally occurring biological organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non-toxic forms.
Bioremediation includes a series of redox reactions for the production of energy within microbial cells for cell maintenance and reproduction.
Bioremediation is a global, regional and local application for removing pollutants from the environment restoring the contaminated sites.
Factors Affecting Bioremediation
The monitoring of soil physically and chemically is a time-consuming process, in order to measure the pollution of soil after contamination in a shorter period of time microbial and biochemical properties of the soil are to be determined bilogy sec 3 & 4 notes, bilogy sec 3 & 4 notes in singapore.
The bioremediation process depends upon the different factors for the removal of the contaminants, some of them are:
1. Concentration of the contaminant
The concentration of the contaminants directly affects microbial activity. Lower the concentration of the contaminants there will be decreasing rate of degrading enzymes produced by bacteria in the soil. Toxic effects are observed in presence of higher concentrations of contaminants. The decomposition rate of catabolic enzymes can be increased by the synergistic interactions between different components of the contaminants.
2. Nutrient availability
Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium are the basic requirement for the growth of microorganisms, the concentration of the nutrient availability directly affects the degradation of the contaminants. The excessive presence of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus shows a negative impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons. The rate of bioremediation can also be determined by knowing the accessibility of organic matters towards microorganisms; which is known as bioavailability.
3. Surfactants; enhancers of bioavailability
Mostly, Chemical and food-grade surfactants are used to increase the hydrophobic organic contaminants. Triton X 100, Tween 80, and SDS are the petroleum-derived chemical surfactants and T-MAZ 28, T-MAZ 10 and T-MAZ 60 are food-graded surfactants used in bioremediation. Besides thes