Geography Notes

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The Most Effective Geography Study Materials for Sec and JC students

Understand Geography easily with Sophia Education‘s straightforward and concise Geography notes. Geography is a key subject that can be daunting to study. However, with easy-to-read and insightful notes from Sophia Education, you will have a powerful edge over those who struggle with geography. Geography is a subject where revision of basic concepts is important as it builds up a strong framework upon which the more complex ideas are built upon. With this set of easy-to-understand notes, you will never struggle with geography – what’s more – you will enjoy learning about it!

It is time to know in detail about the surface of the earth on which we live. We know that the surface of the earth is not a plain platform. It is distributed unevenly with a variety of landforms like mountains, hills, plateaus, plains, ravines, cliffs etc. Why is the surface of the earth uneven? What make changes in the earth’s surface? What process makes mountains and hills? The answer to all the questions above – Geomorphic Processes.

Geomorphic Process

The formation and deformation of landforms on the surface of the earth are a continuous process which is due to the continuous influence of external and internal forces. The internal and external forces causing stresses and chemical action on earth materials and bringing about changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are known as geomorphic processes.

Mind Map to Study Geomorphic Processes/Earth Movements

The below mind map will help to study geomorphic processes and their sub-classification in a matter of minutes.

It’s time to dump her and move on. We know that the earth’s surface is not a flat platform. It is unevenly distributed with different landforms like hills, hills, plateaus, plains, valleys, hills etc. Why is the surface of the earth uneven? What changes on the surface of the earth? In what process are hills and mountains formed? Answers to all the above questions – Geomorphic Process.

Endogenous forces
Endogenous energy is the internal energy that derives its energy from the earth’s interior and plays an important role in the formation of the earth’s crust.
Examples – mountain construction forces, continental construction forces, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.
Endogenous forces are mainly land-building forces.
The energy emitted from inside the earth is the main energy of the endogenous geomorphic process. This energy is mostly generated by radioactivity, rotation and friction of tides and primitive heat from the origin of the earth.

Exogenous forces
Exogenous forces are those energies that derive their energy from outside the Earth or are generated in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Examples of energy – air, waves, water, etc.
Examples of exogenous processes – weather, mass movement, erosion, accumulation.
Exogenic forces are mainly ground forces.
Exogenous energy can take the form of weather, decay and deposition. Weathering is the breaking of rocks on the surface of the earth by various agents like rivers, winds, sea waves and glaciers. Erosion is the movement of broken rock from one place to another by natural agents such as air, water and glaciers.

The action of extraterrestrial energy results in relief / altitude reduction (depletion) and filling (increase) of basins / depressions on the earth’s surface. Gradation is the phenomenon of reduction of surface relief diversity through erosion.

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Geomorphic agents
Flowing water, groundwater, glaciers, wind, waves and currents etc. can be called geomorphic agents.

Geomorphic Processes vs. Geomorphic Agents
A process is an energy that is applied to matter on the earth that has a similar effect. An agent is a traveling medium (such as flowing water, mass of moving ice, wind, waves, and currents, etc.) that removes, transports, and stores earth’s elements.

Earth movement
These are movements of the earth’s crust caused by endogenic or exogenous energy. These movements are also called tectonic movements.
The word ‘tectonic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘tecton’ which means creator.
As the word implies, these movements are primarily responsible for creating and creating a variety of landforms.
Next in the series: Evolution of Endogenic Forces and Land Forms.

Indian Agriculture: Cultivation Types, Features and Challenges
Last updated on March 19, 2022 by the Clarias team

Indian Agriculture
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for about 58% of the population of India. Read here to know more about Indian agriculture. India has one of the largest plains in the world – the Indo-Gangetic plain which is extremely fertile. India has different climatic conditions and soils … [Read more …] About Indian Agriculture: Cultivation Types, Features and Challenges

Zero budget natural farming
Last updated March 5, 2022 by the Clarias team

Zero budget natural farming
What is Zero-Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF)? What are the requirements and significance of ZBNF? What is Agroecology? Read on to find out more. In the news Zero-Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF): Prime Minister Modi announced on 19th November 2021 that new farm laws enacted in 2019 will be repealed in winter … [Read more …] About Zero Budget Natural Farming

Cyclone vs. Anticyclone
Last updated March 3, 2022 by the Clarias team

What is a cyclone? What is the difference between a cyclone and an anticyclone? What are their types? How do they originate? What are the conditions of their formation? Read on to find out more. Cyclones are also called atmospheric disturbances. When wind speeds increase … [Read more …] About Cyclones vs. Anticyclones

Front: type and significance
Last updated March 3, 2022 by the Clarias team

What are the front and their types? How are they formed? What is their significance regarding the global climate? Learn more here. What’s in front? It is a sloping region where two opposite air masses with opposite properties in terms of pressure of air temperature and humidity concentration converge … [Read more …] About the front: Type and Significance

Jet Stream: Features, Types and Significance
Last updated March 3, 2022 by the Clarias team

Jet stream
What is a jet stream? What are the features of Jet Stream? Why is it important for different climate events? Read on to know more. What is a jet stream? Understanding the jet stream is very important for understanding temperate cyclones and Indian monsoons. According to World … [Read more …] About Jet Stream: Features, Types and Significance

Air mass: Origin and classification
Last Updated on February 28, 2022 by the Clarias Team

Air mass
What is an air mass? What does it mean? How does it affect the global climate? Learn more here. What is an air mass? It is defined as a large body of air with slight horizontal variations in temperature and humidity. There is a relatively uniform distribution of air mass perpendicular [Read more …] About air mass: Origin and classification

Rainfall: Different types have been explained in common parlance