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Learn faster than ever before with our easy to use Biology Notes
Sophia Education has the best study guide prepared for all JC, Secondary and Primary School students to easily study Biology. Biology is a subject that’s important for everyone to learn as it explains the world around us. In Biology, students will be learning about Biology concepts and Biology topics including Biology notes on Biology vocabulary, Biology study notes, Biology revision notes and Biology exam notes which are all prepared by our JC, Secondary and Primary School experienced teachers.
Biology Note Principles Cell structure and organization
Movement of matter The chemical of life Enzymes Theme II: Maintenance and control of life processes.
Transport in flowering plants
Transport between people
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Coordination and response
The human eye
Theme III: Continuity of life
Reproduction in flowering plants
Reproduction in humans
Theme IV: Man and his environment
Creatures and their environment
O Level Biology Topical Revision Notes (Revised Edition) is prepared in accordance with the latest syllabus. The book serves as effective study guides for pupils. Important concepts and formulae are presented in simple and concise points for easy reference.
Biology Note Principles Cell structure and organization Movement of matter The chemical of life Enzymes Theme II: Maintenance and control of life processes Animal nutrition Plant nutrition Transport of flowering plants.
Transport between people Respiration Defecation Homeostasis Coordination and response The human eye Theme III: Continuity of life Reproduction in flowering plants Reproduction in humans Cell division Molecular genetics Inheritance Theme IV: Man and his environment Animals and their environment
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with ribosomes on its surface is known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Hence it is also called granular endoplasmic reticulum.
Translocation is the binding of ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
These ribosomes look like studs and they can distinguish organelles from the smooth part of the ER.
Protein is synthesized from amino acids.
It is with the help of ribosomes.
The ribosome consists of four RNA molecules.
Attachment of ribosomes to the surface of RER by two types of glycoproteins. They are:
Riboprotein I (6500 Dalton) and Riboprotein II (6400 Dalton).
RER contains more cisterna and fewer tubules and vesicles.
Near the nucleus, it is attached to its outer membrane where it is more abundant.
Thus, by Garnier, 1897, it is also called ergastoplasm.
RER is present in cells that are involved in the active transport of proteins as well as the synthesis of enzymes. These include:
Acne cells of the pancreas
Cells of the endocrine glands
Together with the Golgi complex, RER helps in the formation of primary lysosomes.
It involves the synthesis, folding and alteration of proteins.
It includes the cells that need to be transported to the various cellular organelles of the cell.
It is involved in the cell response of exposed proteins.
It plays a role in inducing apoptosis.
This is due to the close interaction with mitochondria.
Polysomes are strings of ribosomes that synthesize proteins.
Morphology also helps in identification. Its structure is often bound and flattened which looks like a pouch.
It is produced in the vicinity of the nucleus.
The RER has a membrane combined with the outer atomic membrane.
It forms a large membrane sheet that doubles.
It is best studied among the secretory cells specialized in these functions.